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    Instructional Technologies used in K-12 Education Discussion by Christopher Rozitis Feb 27, 2017 Products Adobe Creative Cloud Adobe Premiere Pro Dreamweaver
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    What technologies (hardware and software) are you using in your online and blended courses? Distance education has been available to K-12 students for over 100 years, and through distance education technologies have changed over the years, some of the original technologies are still being used. The technologies that have been used in K-12 distance education are described in the below figure. Distance education technologies began with instructional films then moved on to print or correspondence, audio, television and finally accumulating to Web-based instruction. The current Web-based instruction includes print, audio, video, and simulations. The new technologies make online education accessible to more people and thus drive the enrollment to online schools. 1910 - Instructional films were not widely adopted due to the lack of portable and inexpensive projectors. The Rochester public schools were the first to adopt instructional films (Saettler, 1990).1910 - Unsupervised correspondence courses were offered by the Education Department to isolated elementary students in the province of British Columbia. The Department of Education would send explanation booklets and parents would supervise their children’s’ work (Dunae, 1992).1921 - Educational radio was used for supplemental instruction. The Ohio School of the Air debuted their first weekly broadcast on January 7, 1929 (Saettler, 1990).1923 - Supervised correspondence study were offered to Nebraska students. The students worked on the their correspondence courses in the classroom (Mitchell, 1923).1933 - Educational television began supplemental evening programs that was conducted by the University of Iowa’s Experimental Visual Broadcasting Station W9XK (Kurtz, 1959) .1956 - Telecourse study was used by high school students that wished early college credit (Clark, 2013).1961 - Airborne instruction from 23,000 feet was used prior to the use of cable and satellites. A signal was provided by airplanes to Midwestern’s states schools (Clark, 2013, Associated Press, 1961).1965 - Computer-based learning experiments with K-12 students began at Stanford and then a year later at Illinois (Clark, 2012).1967 - Audio conferencing began to include community participation in the Wisconsin Public Radio began creating a connection between the students and instructor (Clark 2013).1973 - Educational satellite instruction replaced the airborne instruction and provided high-quality video-based instruction (Clark, 2013).1984 - Computer-mediated communication help phase the online school crusade by having computer learning environments that were interactive and engaging (Clark, 2013).1985 - Satellite network instruction provided professional development for teachers as well as 19 high school academic courses (Pease & Tinsley, 1986)1989 - Microwave/ITFS network instruction created two-way video to remote sites in Maine and Oregon (Hezel Associates, 1998)1994 - Web-based instruction was first offered by the state-run Electronic High School in Utah (Clark, 2013, Watson & Kalmon, 2005). What technologies (hardware and software) are you using in your online and blended courses? References Associated Press. (1961). Radio stations to take over if TV classes halt. The Kokomo Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.newspapers.com/image/2743886 Clark, T. (2012). History of K-12 online learning. Virtual school MOOC. Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://virtualschoolmooc.wikispaces.com/ Clark, T. (2013). The evolution of K-12 distance education and virtual schools. In M. G. Moore (Ed.), Handbook of distance education (3 ed., pp. 555-573). New Your, NY: Routledge. Dunae, P. A. (1992). Correspondence education. Retrieved March 20, 2013, 2011, from http://www.viu.ca/homeroom/content/topics/programs/corresp.htm Hezel Associates. (1998). Educational telecommunications and distance learning: The state-by-state analysis, 1998-99. Syracuse, NY: Hezel Associates. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED438781.pdf Kurtz, E. B. (1959). Pioneering in educational television 1932-39 (A documentary presentation). Iowa City, IA: State University of Iowa. Mitchell, S. C. (1923). For the 90 per cent. The School Review, 31(6), 439-444. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1079372 Pease, P. S., & Tinsley, P. J. (1986). Reaching rural schools using an interactive satellite based educational network: Evaluating TI-IN network’s first year. Paper presented at the National Rural and Small Schools Consortium, Bellingham, WA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED281681). Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED281681.pdf Saettler, P. (2004). The evolution of American educational technology. Charlotte, NC: Information Age. Watson, J. F., & Kalmon, S. (2005). Keeping pace with K–12 online learning: A review of state-level policy and practice. Retrieved from http://www.learningpt.org/pdfs/tech/Keeping_Pace2.pdf

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